Welcome to Nanjing Center for Ocean-Atmosphere Dynamical Studies!

Nanjing Center for Ocean-Atmosphere Dynamical Studies

X. San Liang

X. San Liang is the one who found that causality is a real physical notion that can be derived ab initio. He received his Ph.D. degree in Applied Mathematics from Harvard University, Massachusetts, USA. He has worked at Harvard University, Courant Institute, the Second Institute of Oceanography of the State Oceanic Administration, China Institute for Advanced Study, Central University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, and was a team leader of the Ninth Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition. Presently he is a chair professor at Fudan University, Shanghai, China, with a joint appointment at the Artificial Intelligence Department, Southern Marine Laboratory, and School of Artificial Intelligence, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, China. He is interested in a variety of interdisciplinary fields such as, not exclusively, information flow, causality analysis, causal AI, fluid dynamics, atmosphere-ocean-climate science, turbulence, complex networks, multiscale modeling and simulation, predictability, uncertainty dynamics, etc.


   ° Harvard University  (USA)                                                 Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics         2002

   ° Harvard University   (USA)                                                S.M. in Applied Mathematics          1998

   ° State Oceanic Administration (China)                              M.S. in Physical Oceanography       1991

   ° National University of Defense Technology (China)       B.E. in Aerospace Engineering         1988


Employment History

   ° Fudan University, Shanghai, China                                         Chair Professor                                 2021—

   ° The AI Department, Southern Marine Laboratory,  China     Head /Chief Scientist                        2022—

(School of Artificial Intelligence, Sun Yat-Sen University)

   ° Xiamen University (Universitas Amoiensis), China                 Distinguished Visiting Professor   2017-2018

   ° Stanford University, CA                                                          Visiting Scholar                           summer 2016

   ° Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, China                               Jiangsu Chair Professor                 20112021

   ° China Institute for Advanced Study, China                            Professor                                       2008 –2011

   ° Central University of Finance and Economics, China            Adjunct Professor                          2008 –2011

   ° Courant Institute, NY                                                             Principal Research Scientist                2007

   ° Courant Institute, NY                                                             Research Scientist                         2005 –2007

   ° Harvard University, MA                                                         Postdoctoral Fellow                       2002 - 2004

° Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE #9)        Ocean Survey Team Leader           1992 - 1993

   ° State Oceanic Administration (2nd Inst), China                    Assistant Researcher                      1991 - 1995


Teaching Experiences

   Fudan University, Shanghai, China 

        ·  Instructor: Introduction to Complex Systems                                   (undergraduate)              2023—

   Joint Program of Univ. of Reading, UK – Nanjing U. of Info. Sci. & Tech, China

        ·  Instructor: Elements of Data Science                                                (undergraduatae)              2020

   Xiamen University (Universitas Amoiensis), Xiamen (Amoy), China 

        ·  Instructor: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (graduate)                                                                    2015

   Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, Nanjing, China 

        ·  Instructor: Meter and Rhyme in Classical Chinese Poetry                 (undergraduate)               2020

        ·  Instructor: Climate Dynamics                                                             (graduate)                        2017

        ·  Instructor: Mathematical Methods in Atmosphere-Ocean Science   (graduate)                   2013-2020

   China Institute for Advanced Study, Beijing, China

        ·  Instructor: Basic Topology                                                                  (undergraduate)              2011

        ·  Instructor: Dynamical Systems                                                           (undergraduate)              2010

        ·  Instructor: Stochastic Processes                                                         (undergraduate)              2010

        ·  Instructor: Functional Analysis                                                           (graduate)                        2009

        ·  Instructor: Principles of Mathematical Analysis                                 (undergraduate)              2009

        ·  Instructor: Introductory Dynamical Systems                                      (open course)                  2008

    Courant Institute, New York, USA

         ·  Co-Instructor:  Multivariable Calculus                                                                                       2005

    Harvard University, Massachusetts, USA

         · Teaching Fellow

 Fluid Mechanics                                 (Engineering Science 220 with Howard Stone)                1999

              Physical Oceanography        (Earth and Planetary Science 231 with Allan Robinson)                1998

            Scientific Computing                  (Applied Mathematics 205 with William Vetterling)                1998

            Physical Oceanography        (Earth and Planetary Science 131 with Allan Robinson)                1997

             Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans                       (EPS 202 with Allan Robinson)                1996



° Academic board, MOE Key Laboratory for Mathematical Science, East China Normal U.,           2023

° Academic Board, Joint Laboratory for Mathematics in Ocean Science,

Institute of Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Science, and Ocean Univ. of China                    2021—

° Deputy Dean, School of Marine Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Meteorology                           2011–2021

° Academic Committee, Joint Laboratory for Mathematics in Ocean Science

Ocean University of China and Institute of Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Science            2021—

      ° Advisory Board, Shandong Meteorological Bureau                                                                     2018—

 ° Conveners:

Workshop on causality and information flow in complex systems (July 23-27,2018),

AGU session (Dec. 8-12, 2003)

ICIAM session (Aug. 10-14, 2015)

Distinguished Lecture Series, Nanjing Institute of Meteorology (May 2014)

      ° Deputy Director, Experts Committee, Hong Kong BH Environment Consultants, Ltd (2002-2003)

     ° Panelist/Reviewer:

                European Research Council

                Czech Science Foundation

                Delaware Sea Grant Program

                National Science Foundation of China

                China National Award in Science & Technology

     ° Reviewer: Phys. Rev. Lett.Phys. Rev. E, Physica A, Physica D, American Naturalist,

J. Phys. Oceanogr., J.  Fluid Mech., Phys. Fluids, J. Atmos. & Oceanic Tech.,

     J. Atmos. Sci., Mon.Wea. Rev., J. Geophys. Res., Dyn. Atmos. Ocean,Tellus,

J. Clim., Clim. Dyn., Geophys. Res. Lett., Chaos, Entropy, Phys. Lett. A, Ocean Dyn.,

IEEE Trans. Paral. Distrib. Sys.,  Deep-Sea Res., Ocean Modeling, Adv. Water Resourc.,

Nonlin. Progr. Geophys., Int’l J. Stoch. Mech., Nonl. Anal. Real World Appl.,

Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Science China, Acta Oceanologica Sinica,

Mathematical Geosciences, PLoS ONE, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing,

J. Computational & Nonlinear Dynamics, Comm. Nonlin. Sci. Num. Simul.,

Proc. Royal Soc. A,  Atmospheric Research, Envrionmental & Ecological Statistics,

Big Data & Cognitive Computing, Axioms, EGUsphere, Qeios, etc.


Major Seminars (outside China only)

     ° Athena Research and Innovation Center, Industrial System Institute, Patras, Greece,             July 17, 2023

     ° Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA,                                                                  December 7, 2021

     ° Czech Academy of Science, Institute of Computer Science                                                     July 25, 2019

     ° European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy                                                 July 18-19, 2019

     ° University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan                                                                                           March 7, 2019

     ° JAMSTEC, Yokahoma, Japan                                                                                                   March 4, 2019

     ° Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA                                                                  November 18, 2016

       ° University of California – Los Angeles (UCLA), CA                                                            October 13, 2016

   ° Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA                                                                September 22, 2015

   ° University of California – Los Angeles (UCLA), CA                                                               March 27, 2014

   ° State University of New York – Stony Brook (SUNY), NY                                                      August 7, 2013

   ° University of Massachusetts – Amherst, MA                                                                    February 15, 2011

   ° Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), MA                                                           February 22, 2010

   ° Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ                                                                                  January 21, 2008

   ° Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), Princeton University, NJ                       October 19, 2007

   ° University of North Carolina, Wilmington, NC                                                                     March 18, 2007

   ° University of Connecticut, Storrs and Avery Point, CT                                                       January 15, 2007

   ° Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York, NY                                            February 15, 2006

   ° Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL                                                                               March 28, 2003

   ° North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC                                                                       March 25, 2003

   ° Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA                                                                                 March 24, 2003

   ° University of Delaware, Newark, DE                                                                                     March 21, 2003

   ° Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), Palisades, NY                                                 March 14, 2003

   ° Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ                                                                               March 13, 2003

   ° University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI                                                                     January 24, 2003

   ° Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA                                     December 11, 2002

   ° Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA                                                                December 4, 2002

   ° Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA                                                           December 3, 2002

   ° Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA                                          November 12, 2002